Antarctic Ozone Hole 2013
The Antarctic Ozone Hole during 2013
We review the 2013 Antarctic ozone hole, making use of various meteorological reanalyses, remotely sensed ozone measurements and ground-based measurements of ultra-violet radiation. Based on analysis of 34 years of satellite records, we find that, in terms of maximum area, minimum ozone level and total ozone deficit, the ozone hole in 2013 was typical of other years of moderate ozone loss. The estimated integrated ozone mass effectively depleted within the ozone hole of 2013 was approximately 1037 Mt, which is the 17th largest deficit on record and 41% of the peak deficit observed in 2006. Anomalously cold winter temperatures in the lower stratosphere over Antarctica and concurrent strong and stable vortex conditions favoured strong ozone depletion in 2013. However, anomalous warming of the polar vortex that occurred from September limited the overall severity of ozone depletion during spring, and resulted in the relatively early breakup of the ozone hole in mid-November.